February 5

By Victoria Forshaw

Writer & Researcher


February 5, 2024

How Is Gold Formed

How Is Gold Formed

Gold, a precious metal often associated with wealth, beauty, and a rich history, has captured the imagination of people around the world for centuries. The understanding of how gold is formed, from its cosmic origins to the geological processes that concentrate it in the Earth's crust, reveals fascinating insights into the metal's unique properties and why it has been cherished by countless civilizations.

Starting with its chemical composition, gold is a transition metal belonging to group 11 in the periodic table and is known for its bright, slightly orange-yellow color. Valued for its softness, malleability, and resistance to corrosion, gold has varied applications across industries, ranging from jewelry and dentistry to electronics and space exploration. The formation process of gold is rooted in the birth and death of stars, where nuclear reactions create heavy elements that eventually form this precious metal.

In this article, we will explore the intricacies of gold's formation, its diverse types, and availability in different locations. We will also delve into modern mining techniques, global gold reserves, and the multitude of sectors in which this awe-inspiring element has left its mark. From its celestial roots to its role in contemporary economies, our examination of gold formation tells a tale of ever-evolving scientific understanding and human ingenuity.

Key Takeaways

  • Gold is formed through cosmic and geologic processes that involve nuclear reactions, element formation, and concentration in the Earth's crust.
  • The types of gold and its availability vary based on its formation process and geographic location, having significant implications for its extraction and mining.
  • Gold plays an essential role in various industries, and its rarity and timeless appeal make it an attractive option for investments.

How Is Gold Formed?

Gold is formed through a cosmic process known as supernova nucleosynthesis and through neutron star collisions. Both of these processes involve the rapid capture of neutrons, which produces heavy elements like gold.  The idea that gold formation is associated with these astrophysical phenomena.

Stars, like our sun, are predominantly composed of hydrogen and helium atoms. Through a process called nuclear fusion, these atoms collide at high temperature and pressure, fusing them into heavier elements. However, elements heavier than iron, such as gold, cannot be formed through nuclear fusion alone. This is where supernovae and neutron star collisions come into play.

Gold Ore

A supernova is a spectacular explosion of a massive star that has reached the end of its life cycle. The extreme conditions in a supernova, including high temperatures and pressures, trigger a series of nuclear reactions that produce heavy elements. Similarly, neutron star collisions involve the merging of two extremely dense remnants of dead stars, releasing a tremendous amount of energy and ejecting heavy elements into space.

One such event, the collision of two neutron stars, was detected by gravitational waves in 2017. The observations indicated that elements like gold were formed during the collision, supporting the theory of gold formation through neutron star collisions.

Consider The Following Mathematical Expression

In this expression, a neutron (n) interacts with silver (Ag) to produce gold (Au) and an electron (e-). This process is an example of supernova nucleosynthesis and neutron star collisions contributing to the formation of gold.

Other Types of Gold Formation

There are various other forms of gold besides the primary occurrence of this precious metal in nature. Some of these include electrum, gold alloys, gold leaf, and gold dust. In this section, we will take a brief look at each of these types, discussing their composition, appearance, properties, and uses.

Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver with trace amounts of other metals like copper and lead. Its composition varies, but it typically contains between 20% and 80% gold. Electrum has a pale-yellow to greenish-yellow appearance and was highly prized by ancient civilizations for its durability and resistance to tarnish. It was used in making coins, jewelry, and artwork. The famous Lydian stater coin, for example, was made of electrum.

Gold alloys are formed when gold is combined with other metals, such as silver, copper, and platinum. These alloys offer different properties compared to pure gold, such as greater hardness, diverse coloration, and improved wear resistance. For instance, an alloy of gold and iron is known as 'Blue Gold' due to its distinct blue hue. Gold alloys are commonly used in jewelry, with the proportion of gold represented in karats (e.g., 18 karats equals 75% gold).

Gold, being a highly malleable metal, can be pounded into ultra-thin sheets known as gold leaf. Gold leaf is only a few atoms thick and has a translucent appearance. Due to its extreme thinness, gold leaf is often used in gilding, a decorative technique for applying a thin layer of gold to various surfaces, including paintings, statues, and architectural elements. A famous example of gold leaf application is the gilded dome of the United States Capitol building.

Gold dust refers to tiny particles or flakes of gold often found naturally in placer deposits or as a product of the gold mining process. It has a bright yellow appearance and is used for diverse purposes. Gold dust was used by ancient Egyptians in cosmetics, and it is also utilized in various industrial processes, such as the production of electronics and dental equipment.

Gold's Origin and Earth's Crust

Gold is a chemical element with the atomic number 79 and is considered a precious metal. It is both rare and valuable, known for its appealing yellow color, resistance to corrosion, and unique physical properties. Gold's formation can be traced back to its cosmic origins, where it was created through a process called supernova nucleosynthesis1. Supernovae and neutron star collisions resulted in the dispersal of gold into space. Over time, this dispersed gold became incorporated into new stars and planetary bodies, including Earth.

During Earth's formation, gold initially sank to the planet's core due to its high density. However, asteroid impacts might have brought gold back to the surface, where it eventually became embedded in the Earth's crust. Crustal gold deposits are affected by various geological processes, such as erosion, weathering, and tectonic movements. These processes play a significant role in shaping the distribution of gold within the Earth's crust.

In the Earth's crust, gold primarily forms through hydrothermal processes and placer deposits. Hydrothermal processes involve the circulation of hot, mineral-rich fluids through cracks and fissures in the crust. These fluids interact with reactive host rocks, eventually depositing gold. This process commonly results in the formation of gold veins. On the other hand, placer deposits form when gold particles, like nuggets and flakes, accumulate in alluvial sediments after being eroded from their original locations. Both hydrothermal and placer deposits are crucial for the formation and distribution of gold in the Earth's crust.

Several sources, Ampex provides comprehensive information on the geological processes responsible for gold's formation. As a friendly reminder, understanding gold's cosmic origin and its formation in the Earth's crust offers valuable insights into this precious metal's unique characteristics and its significance in human history.

Where Is Gold Found?

Gold can be found in various locations across the globe, from riverbeds to deep underground. Its abundance depends on several factors, including geology, climate, history, and exploration.

Geological Conditions for Gold Deposition

Gold is typically found in rocks that have formed from various geological processes. The gold forms veins in these rocks, which are created when a higher concentration of gold is found in certain areas. Some key geological conditions required for gold deposition include:

  • Temperature and pressure: Gold deposits primarily occur in areas with high temperatures and pressures, such as in deep underground.
  • Presence of fluids: Fluids, particularly water, play a crucial role in transporting gold. As water seeps through rocks and carries gold ions, it eventually precipitates and deposits the gold in specific locations.
  • Geological structures: Geological formations, such as faults, play a significant role in trapping and concentrating gold. Gold accumulation often occurs in fractures and fissures in the Earth's crust.

How Are Gold Veins Formed?

Gold veins are formed through a process called hydrothermal deposition. This occurs when hot fluids, often under high pressure, circulate through rocks and dissolve gold. As the fluids cool down, gold ions precipitate out of the solution and collect in veins, creating a higher concentration of the precious metal.

Some common places where gold is found include:

  • Placer deposits: Gold can accumulate in riverbeds and stream sediments and form solid nuggets or grains within sand and gravel. These placer deposits are often eroded from gold-bearing rocks and are carried by the river's flow.
  • Primary deposits: Gold is often found in its original host rock in the Earth's crust, usually in the form of veins. These veins are surrounded by rocks that formed through various geological processes, with gold crystals embedded within them.

Major Gold-Producing Countries and Regions:

Largest and Richest Gold Deposits and Mines:

Modern Gold Mining Techniques

In this section, we will discuss the modern techniques used in gold mining. Gold mining has evolved over the years as new technologies and methods are applied to extract and process gold more efficiently, safely, and environmentally friendly.

How Is Gold Ore Mined?

There are various techniques used to mine gold ore, depending on the location and geologic setting of the deposit. Some of the common techniques include:

  1. Underground mining: This method is used when gold deposits are found deep below the earth's surface. Miners dig tunnels and shafts to access the ore, usually in a vein or a deposit. This method can be more expensive but allows for safer mining conditions.
  2. Open-pit mining: Also known as surface mining, this technique involves removing the topsoil and rock layers to access gold deposits near the earth's surface. Heavy machinery is used to dig and transport the ore. Open-pit mining is generally more cost-effective but has the largest impact on the environment.
  3. Alluvial mining: This method is used to extract gold from sediment deposits, such as riverbeds and streams. Panning, sluices, and dredging are some techniques employed in alluvial mining. Environmental impact is lower compared to other methods, but the yield may be smaller.

Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages, such as cost, efficiency, safety.

Processing Gold Ore

Once gold ore is extracted from the earth, it needs to be processed to separate gold from other materials. Here are two common techniques used in modern gold processing:

  1. Cyanide leaching: This method uses a weak cyanide solution to dissolve and separate gold from the ore. The gold-laden solution is then treated to remove impurities and extract the gold. While it is a highly effective method, it presents significant environmental and safety concerns due to the toxicity of cyanide. Regulations and precautions are in place to minimize and manage risks from cyanide exposure.
  2. Gravity separation: This method relies on the differences in density between gold and other materials to separate the gold. Techniques such as the use of centrifugal concentrators, shaking tables, and spirals are employed in gravity separation. This method is less harmful to the environment but might not be as efficient compared to cyanide leaching.

It is important to mention that methods like cyanide leaching are closely regulated to protect the environment and ensure safe working conditions for miners. Organizations like the World Gold Council have set standards to promote responsible mining and processing practices. For example, the gold used as a reserve in Fort Knox is held to strict standards in terms of purity and production methods.

Global Gold Reserves and Rarity

Gold, an attractive and valuable metal known for its scarcity and rarity, has been sought after for centuries for both its physical and symbolic properties. Determining exactly how much gold exists in the world is a complex task, as it involves considering various factors such as gold reserves, resources, and exploration data.

Estimates suggest that there are approximately 190,000 tonnes of gold in existence on Earth, an amount that would be enough to fill three Olympic-sized swimming pools. However, not all of this gold is readily available for purchase or investing. A significant portion of it is held in gold reserves by central banks, private institutions, and individuals. According to the World Gold Council, around 50,000 tonnes of gold are readily accessible for new investment purposes, which is enough to fill just one Olympic-sized swimming pool.

It is important to note that these estimates are subject to change due to ongoing mining and exploration efforts. As more gold is discovered and extracted from the Earth, the total amount of gold in existence increases, which can affect the perceived scarcity and rarity of the metal. Nevertheless, gold remains a highly coveted and finite resource, making it an appealing investment for many.

Benefits of Gold in Various Industries

Gold is a versatile metal with a broad range of applications across various industries, thanks to its physical, chemical, economic, and social advantages. One of the primary benefits of gold is its beauty, making it highly sought after for jewelry items such as rings and necklaces. Its distinctive appearance and durability have led to gold becoming a symbol of wealth and prestige.

In addition to its aesthetic appeal, gold boasts excellent electrical conductivity, making it a crucial component in electronic devices. Many smartphones and computers incorporate gold in their circuitry due to its high conductivity and resistance to corrosion. This property of gold allows for improved performance and longevity in electronic components.

Gold's malleability makes it an ideal choice for industries that require metals to be easily shaped and molded. This property, combined with its ductility, allows gold to be transformed into thin wires or sheets for various applications. Some examples include connectors in electronic devices and gold leaf for decorative purposes.

Apart from its use in technology, gold has applications in other industries, such as medicine. Its biocompatibility and non-reactive nature make it suitable for medical implants, particularly in dental work and joint replacements.

Economically, gold has held a significant role throughout history as a store of value. The gold standard bridged currencies, provided a global monetary system, and facilitated international trade. Nowadays, gold remains a popular choice for investments, serving as a hedge against inflation and financial uncertainty.

Here are some examples of gold's applications across different industries:

  • Jewelry: Rings, necklaces, bracelets, and earrings
  • Electronics: Smartphones, computers, and connector cables
  • Medicine: Dental fillings, joint replacements, and medical implants
  • Investment: Gold bars, coins, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs)

For more information about the benefits of gold in various industries, refer to sourcesBenefits Investing in Gold Bars

Why Gold Investment Is Worth Considering

Investing in gold has long been considered a worthy option for those looking to diversify their investment portfolios and protect their wealth. Gold is known for its stable value, strong performance, and potential for growth over time. Historically, gold has held its value well, even during times of economic uncertainty and market volatility.

There are several factors that influence the price and demand of gold, including its supply, inflation, interest rates, and geopolitics. The finite supply of gold increases its value as a precious metal. As the gold standard once anchored the global monetary system, gold has played an important role in shaping the course of human history. It continues to serve as a store of value, as gold prices often rise with inflation and offer a hedge against currency fluctuations.

Best trusted companies to Buy Gold From in the USA

1. Goldco

2. Augusta Precious Metals

3. American Hartford Gold

When it comes to investing in gold, there are many companies offering the sale of Gold to put it simple some can be trusted and some cannot. Therefore its always best to look at their reviews and get at least three quotes that are like for like. You can checkout the reviews on the companies I have recommended by clicking the link reviews: Best Company Reviews.

  1. Bullion: Physical gold, such as bars or ingots, that is bought for its weight and purity.
  2. Coins: Gold coins are minted by governments and come in various weights, sizes, and designs.
  3. Gold ETFs: Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that track the price of gold, offering an opportunity to invest in gold without having to buy and store physical gold.
  4. Gold mining stocks: Investors can buy shares in gold mining companies, which profits can leverage gold price movements.


In this article, we have explored how gold is formed, from the cosmic events that created the element to the geologic processes that concentrated it in the Earth's crust. Gold, a dense lustrous yellow precious metal, comes from outer space and is primarily formed during supernova explosions. These events scatter gold particles throughout the universe, some of which eventually end up on our planet.

Over time, geologic processes such as erosion and sedimentation have concentrated gold in specific locations on Earth, making it possible for humans to discover and extract this valuable resource. Gold's rarity, beauty, and malleability have made it highly prized throughout history, not only for adornment but also for investments and various industrial uses. Not only is gold a valuable precious metal but it can prove to be a stable asset in times of uncertainty so it's definitely worth considering gold investment if you want to diversify your investment portfolio especially in times of economic uncertainty.

Want To Know Who The Best Companies To Invest With Are?